In 1995, for example, the floating population of the Delta made up more than half of the floating population of Guangdong Province ( At the close of the 20th century, Hong Kong was the undisputed economic powerhouse of the region. 1994. World Population Growth Visualized (1950-2100) In any large set of data, there are bound to be some interesting outliers. 1511-1526. Environment Science and Technology Press of China This development stemmed in part from rising incomes and in. SOURCE: The Forty Years of Ji'an Prefecture, Ji'an Prefecture Statistics, 1988. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. Introduction to the Tri-Academy Project, 4. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. and the discharge of waste materials. But by 1995 per capita floor space was about three times that of the 1960s and 1970s ( In the Delta area it mainly reflects rice production. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. 1988 Some industries—particularly iron ore, pig iron, raw coal, calcium sulfate ore, phosphate fertilizer, cement, and calcium sulfate—produce considerable quantities of solid and liquid waste. FIGURE 9-2 Total population, Pearl River Delta, 1970–1994. FIGURE 9-4 Net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. The resulting dasymetric population maps (Fig. NOTE: According to China's land classification system, garden land is planted in perennial crops such as orchard crops and tea; farmland is used to produce grain, vegetables, and cash crops; and forestland is devoted to cultivated and natural forests. Pearl River Delta: China’s Biggest Economic Hub. This indicator also overestimates the true level of urbanization, however, because some people who engaged in nonagricultural work lived in rural areas where there has been rapid growth in rural enterprises. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Figure 9-9). Shenzhen, the showcase city of the Pearl River Delta likes to brag it is "the fastest growing city in the fastest growing region of the fastest growing province of the fastest growing country in the world." Guangzhou and Shenzhen, the region’s two tier 1 cities, account for 41% of the urban population of the PRD and 57% of GDP. The Delta was the fastest-growing region at around 15% a year! The first is the proportion of population living within the boundaries of cities and towns. The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. In the Delta area the floating population has been increasing because of the rapidly growing job market there. The Pearl River Delta region has a very different pattern of growth compared to other fast-growing cities in China. Figure 9-10), even though the population continued to grow. . It is responsible for 26.8% of the country’s exports, making it third in trade after the United States and Germany, according to the Yearbook. FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population.[3]. Beijing: China Population Press; Statistical Yearbooks for Shenzhen and Zhuhai. Among them, the increased population growth and wealth resulting from rising production and trade caused a significant change in the regional housing structure. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. One government housing reform policy allowed diversification of housing construction. The second factor is that farmers were increasingly able to export their products outside the region. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses nearly 7000 square kilometers, 0.07 percent of China, with a population of 22 million people, 3.1 percent of the 2010 population of mainland China. If not, the money is not returned and a fine is imposed. By contrast, the population of Guangzhou municipality increased by less than twofold, from 3.9 million to 6.3 million. 1988 The capacity for processing wastewater has lagged far behind the increased output (Tang Yonglun, 1995). FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. Impact of urbanization and delayed childbearing on population growth and aging in China. Land Economics. China’s Pearl River Delta has overtaken Tokyo to become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population. A densely populated region in southeastern China, the Pearl River Delta has undergone dramatic changes in its population, land use, and environmental quality, stemming from its rapid economic development and urbanization. 4. By 2015, according to World Bank figures, it had become the world's largest urban area in both size and population. Ma Xia. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. [2], The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses nearly 7000 square kilometers, 0.07 percent of China, with a population of 22 million people, 3.1 percent of the 2010 population of mainland China. Fueled by its red hot economy, the Pearl River Delta region has grown from a patchwork of cities into the PRD megalopolis, one of the fastest growing and largest urban area in the world. The Pearl River Delta is made up of cities located along the Pearl River estuary, where it flows into the South China Sea. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. As a result, Shenzhen saw its floating population grow from 10,000 in 1980 to 600,000 in 1989. In the meantime, the proportion of urban/built-up land increased from 2.4 percent in 1973 to 15.7 percent in 1995. This study covers the period before Hong Kong was reunited with the rest of China, and thus Hong Kong is not explicitly studied here. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. In addition, paper manufacturing poses one of the greatest pollution threats, and wooden furniture manufacturing results in significant loss of local forests. Since economic reform was implemented in China in 1978 (see The changing patterns of local food consumption mask two key factors associated with the shifts in crop production. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing in China, Sao Paulo in Brazil) 127 cities (15.1%) from … The Pearl River Delta is an extended metropolitan region of nearly 50 million people, encouraged by the Chinese government as an engine of economic growth and … This growth, however, has been accompanied by environmental pollution. 1989 Does rapid economic growth unavoidably result in severe environmental pollution? SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1970–1995. SOURCE: 1% Sampling Census of 1995 in Guangdong. Since the 2008 financial crisis, there have been great changes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where growing and shrinking areas coexist. In 2018, cities in the highest quarter of greenness range accommodated only 12% of the total city population; about 69% of the total population lived in areas with a lower greenness. SOURCES: Selected Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. The volume of automobile and factory emissions in the Delta area more than tripled from 1986 to 1995, and the volume of sulfur dioxide released into the atmosphere is estimated to be about 24 times higher than the average for China as a whole. FIGURE 9-2 Total population, Pearl River Delta, 1970–1994. SOURCES: Statistical Yearbooks of Dongguan, Huadu, and Zhongshan (various years). Population and Development Review Table 9-2). 28, No. China’s Pearl River Delta has overtaken Tokyo to become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population. tied to declines in grassland, because most of the grassland, gardens, and forests are located on mountain slopes and hillsides. FIGURE 9-5 Urban/built-up areas and farmland, Pearl River Delta, 1960–1995. These changes have been characterized by the conversion of agricultural land into nonagricultural land and a trend toward more intensified use of land in both rural and urban areas. Figure 9-5). . The average annual growth rate of the population in Macao and the Inland Nine Cities exceeds the annual growth rate of the urban population in the New York Bay Area. (Note 1) It increased from about 45 percent of the total workforce in 1982 to about 80 percent in 1995. But since the mid-1980s, in-migration, accelerating industrialization, and land use change have led to obvious environmental degradation. Chapter 8). In 1995 the population density of the Delta area was 1,173 persons per square kilometer, compared with 439 persons per square kilometer in Guangdong Province as a whole. Table 9-10 compares economic, population, farmland, and environmental pollution indicators for Zhuhai with those for the other five municipalities in the Delta area. This trade set in motion a process of dramatic shifts in consumption in the region. The unique location of the Pearl River Delta, with its proximity to neighboring Hong Kong and Macao, have made it a major area for foreign investment, particularly in industry. [1], The zone is formed by 9 cities, namely Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Dongguan, four districts and counties of Huizhou and four districts and counties of Zhaoqing. Before the economic reforms, Shenzhen and Zhuhai were relatively small agricultural and fishing villages; after the reforms they became large metropolitan areas with millions of residents. Under the farmyard manure regime fertility and soil quality improved. The development of the sleepy Pearl River Delta has shown the world what a dramatic growth spurt can do as cities merge and megacities are born. It has been the most economically dynamic region of the Chinese Mainland since the launch of China's reform program in 1979. First, grains and vegetables were being increasingly fed to animals to produce meat and other animal-related products such as milk. All these steps have been effective at curbing pollution in the Zhuhai municipality. Thus the proportion of treated industrial emissions increased from 50 percent in 1986 to 87.2 percent in 1995 in Guangdong Province as a whole, and from 47 percent to about 93.1 percent in the Delta area over the same period. 4. As a result, not only governments and state-owned enterprises but also private real estate companies can now invest in housing development. NOTE: Total population includes only persons registered in the Pearl River Delta and excludes the floating population registered in other places. FIGURE 9-7 Farmland and net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. Table 9-2 experienced high population growth. Recognizing the importance of these linkages can be a significant step toward more effective environmental management. 9-12), while more and more farmland was shifted to production of cash crops and vegetables (see Statistical data were used to test and validate these findings. Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing in China, Sao Paulo in Brazil) 127 cities (15.1%) from … SOURCE: Environment Bulletin of Guangdong Province, 1990 and 1995. Intensified land use has been a significant consequence of changes in land use in the Pearl River Delta. 29–33 Overall, as net migration rates rose in the Delta between 1980 and 1994, farmland decreased (see Beijing: China Statistical Press. Finally, the government has strictly prohibited any transfer of polluting factories from Hong Kong and Macao to the suburban and rural areas of Zhuhai. In Shenzhen City, for example, the local government began to control the size of the floating population by requiring special registration forms. As the world’s population exceeds an incredible 6 billion people, governments—and scientists—everywhere are concerned about the prospects for sustainable development. This study used multiple time-series data for the years 1950–1995 at the regional (entire study area) and subregional levels. SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong Province, 1997, p. 228. fact, the citizens of Guangzhou pressure government urban planners to develop such areas. Multiple regression analysis is performed to explore the determinants of economic resilience in the PRD. In the 1990s the pressure of population growth on the land, particularly that produced by the in-migrant and floating populations, began to attract more attention from governments at all levels. Because the government strictly controls nonagricultural household registration, some people who have lived in urban areas for many years and have worked in nonagricultural activities still have not been given nonagricultural household registration status. Over the last decade, the ties between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta have developed drastically, perhaps best demonstrated by the tremendous growth in cross-border traffic. It is responsible for 26.8% of the country’s exports, making it third in trade after the United States and Germany, according to the Yearbook. In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. During that period, the average real rate of GDP growth in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone exceeded 16 percent, well above the People's Republic of China national figure of 9.8 percent. Thus some suburban residents who were actually engaged in agricultural activities were counted as belonging to the urban population. FIGURE 9-13 Vegetable land, Huadu, Conghua, and Zengcheng counties, 1978–1988. A considerable portion of this tremendous increase, however, resulted from the redrawing of administrative boundaries. The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta … The third indicator is the proportion of persons who are officially registered as members of nonagricultural households. Chapter 8). Nevertheless, rapid economic growth does not necessarily result in massive degradation of the environment. SOURCES: Selected Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. changes in land use in the region. Soil quality in the Pearl River Delta has undergone complicated processes of change in the last decades, particularly paddy soil which has a long history and a broad range of quality in the Pearl River Delta. Today, the Pearl River Delta's GDP clocks in at over $1.2 trillion, ahead of countries like Mexico and Indonesia, making it the 15th largest economy in the world. Nonindustrial consumers generated 41.7 percent of total wastewater in 1986, rising to 66.4 percent in 1994. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. In the process, a region that was once largely agricultural has emerged as a manufacturing platform of global importance. Shenzhen, the showcase city of the Pearl River Delta likes to brag it is "the fastest growing city in the fastest growing region of the fastest growing province of the fastest growing country in the world." This gave rise to the creation of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, as well as development of a land lease system and some privatization of housing. The permanent population of Zhuhai is only 600,000; the other municipalities range in population from more than 1 million to several million. How to provide surplus agricultural laborers with employment opportunities thus became an important issue. Figure 9-8). With the socioeconomic reforms beginning in 1978, Hong Kong's investments in and influence on the study area increased dramatically. FIGURE 9-6 Farmland and total population, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. If the enterprise then passes the environmental protection examination at the end of the year, the sum is returned along with an additional financial reward. Close links to Hong Kong and Macau mean that Pearl River Delta region consumers adopt international tastes earlier than most places in China, making the region one of the trend setters in China. Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Jitai Basin Region, Jiangxi Province, Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Branch of Popular Science Press of China, Environment Science and Technology Press of China, Postdoctoral report, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Growing Populations, Changing Landscapes: Studies from India, China, and the United States, Part I. In Southern China, the Pearl River Delta is giving rise to an urban super-power in the first rank. In 1978 per capita grain consumption in urban areas of Ghangdong Province was 176 kilograms, falling to 88 kilograms by 1995 (see Figure 9-8 ) Delta: China ’ s Biggest economic Hub introduce the of... Local government began to control the size of Taiwan 's Ebro Delta has grown pearl river delta population growth a substantially faster rate populations. 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