There is a long tradition on how this is best done, and the principle from a design point of view is to assure that there are no differences between the treatment conditions (especially in these evaluations, often there are only the new curriculum materials to be evaluated and a control group) either at the outset of the study or during the conduct of the study. Researcher does not form the groups. Other less frequently used approaches documented the calendar of curricular coverage, requested teacher feedback by textbook chapter, conducted student surveys, and gauged homework policies, use of technology, and other particular program elements. Both types of studies yielded significant differences for some of the comparisons coded as restrictions to generalizability. Evaluating each of the first two questions independently seems relatively straightforward. Error bars denote the 99 percent confidence interval for each data point. (2000). Studies were categorized into specified (including a single or multiple identified curricula) and nonspecified curricula. Double Comparatives: There is a unique structure of English sentence which starts with a comparative and takes another comparative to complete it. Additionally, the thesis in such analysis depends greatly on the things you have chosen to contrast and how they relate. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. We recognized that professional development could be viewed by the readers of this report in two ways. in a change in finding. As a result, we categorized the Saxon studies within the group of studies of commercial materials. A second limitation to generalizability was when comparative studies resided entirely at curriculum pilot site locations, where such sites were developed as a means to conduct formative evaluations of the materials with close contact and advice from teachers. However, the same percentage of the NSF-supported evaluations disaggregated their results by subgroup, as did commercially generated evaluations (41 percent in both cases). This complex set of institutional policies, school contexts, and individual personalities makes comparative studies, even quasi-experimental approaches, challenging, and thus demands an honest and feasible assessment of what can be expected of evaluation studies (Usiskin, 1997; Kilpatrick, 2002; Schoenfeld, 2002; Shafer, in press). More complete and thorough descriptions and configurations of characteristics of the subgroups being served at any location—with careful attention to interactions—is needed in evaluations. We hoped for an array of evaluation studies that might shed some empirical light on this dispute, and hence separated professional development from treatment fidelity, coding whether or not studies reported on the amount of professional development provided for the treatment and/or comparison groups. Alternative hypotheses included the following: The teachers in the experimental groups tended to be self-selecting early adopters, and thus able to achieve effects not likely in regular populations. A few studies in this category also compared two samples within the curriculum to each other and specified different conditions such as high and low implementation quality. Their results are coded in relation to the comparison group in the study and are indicated as statistically in favor of the program, as in favor of the comparative program, or as showing no significant differences. A diverse set of effective curricula would be ideal. For others, the inclusion of professional development in the program elements without a concomitant inclusion of equal amounts of professional development relevant to a comparative treatment interjects a priori disproportionate treatments and biases the results. These results are presented only for the purpose of stimulating further evaluation efforts. We read and reviewed a set of 95 comparative studies. Some studies mention and give a subjective judgment as to the nature of the problem, but this is descriptive at the most. A major decision in forming an evaluation design is the unit of analysis. Finally, the committee emphasizes once again the importance of basing the studies on measures with established curricular validity and avoiding cor-. There is an urgent need for a set of measures that would provide detailed information on specific concepts and conceptual development over time and may require use as embedded as well as summative assessment tools to provide precise enough data on curricular effectiveness. The students would be taught the entire curriculum, and a test administered at the end of instruction would provide unequivocal results that would permit one to identify the more effective treatment. 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